Catch That Daily Egg Habit PDF Print E-mail
FNRI DIGEST
Written by ADORACION U. MONDALA, Supervising Science Research Specialist   

Characteristics of Eggs

Nutritional Value of Eggs

% RDA Contribution of Different Types of Eggs (Ref. man, 20-39y)

The Cholesterol Content of Common Filipino Foods

Sample One-Day Menu

Methods of Cooking Eggs

Some Egg Tips


Chicken eggs are widely consumed in the Filipino diet followed by duck and quail eggs. Other types of eggs include reptile eggs (bayawak), turtle eggs (pagong/pawikan), Tabon eggs, Bantam eggs, goose eggs, ostrich eggs, turkey eggs and ant eggs. Bantam eggs are ½ size of regular chicken eggs and with the same characteristics of chicken egg. Goose eggs are 4-5X larger and have richer flavor than a chicken egg. Ostrich eggs are 20X as large as a chicken egg and have thick, ivory-colored shells. Turkey eggs are 20X as large as a chicken egg and have brown shell and delicate flavor.

There are three market forms of eggs namely: fresh, dried (whole, egg whites/egg yolks), and frozen (whole, egg whites/egg yolks).

Egg substitutes are low in cholesterol but not always low in fat. They are made from egg whites and vegetable oil.

Table egg is one of the most vital components of poultry industry in most developed countries. The egg production increased by 2.69% within the four-year period, from 45.3 M tons in 1996 to 50.4 M tons in 2000. The top five egg producers for year 2000 include China, USA, Japan, Russia, and India.

In the Philippines, there are efficient egg producers but not competitive in both domestic and international markets. Chicken and duck eggs are the main sources of production in the country. The top egg producers for 2000 are Luzon, Mindanao, and Visayas. What's in an egg? Egg contains all the essential amino acids. They also contain most of the recognized vitamins, except vitamin C. Aside from vitamins, eggs have minerals, too. Egg is an excellent source of iodine and also provides significant amount of zinc, selenium, and iron. Listed above are the nutritional value of eggs and % RDA contribution of different types of eggs for a reference man, 20-59 years old:

Your Guide to Good Nutrition (YGGN) recommends 1 ¾ - 2 servings of meat/fish/poultry; ½ cup cooked dried beans and ½ piece egg to meet the average daily allowance for protein, iron, calcium and B-vitamins of a normal adult.

Why eat eggs? Eggs may be considered as "functional foods". Functional foods are foods that may have health benefits beyond their traditional nutritional value. Eggs as functional foods contain lutein and zeaxanthin that reduce the risk of cataracts and macular degeneration. Eggs may also belong to "designer foods".Designer foods are foods that have been modified through biotechnology to enhance their quality or nutritional value. Eggs as designer foods contain omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.

The desirable properties of eggs are: thickening, emulsifying, coating/glazing, clarifying, retarding crystallization, garnishing, and coloring.

Characteristics of eggs are:

 Eggs are convenient and easy to prepare.

- readily available
- keep well in the refrigerator for months
- require short cooking time
- versatile

 Eggs are easy to chew and digest - an advantage for elderly people and children.

 Eggs are the cheapest source of high quality protein thus, making it an inexpensive high quality protein food.

 Eggs may aid in memory retention - it has choline that develops memory function and improves memory capability.

 Eggs contain vitamin D that aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and essential to keep bones strong.

 Eggs are a nutrient -dense food - contain high quality protein and essential vitamins and
minerals.

 Eggs contain folate, essential for the prevention of birth defects in infants and heart diseases in older folks.

 Eggs offer nutrition and fun - a delightful way to start the day 

 

Table 1. Nutritional Value of Eggs*

TYPE
OF EGG
Energy
Protein
Fat
CHO
Ca
P
Fe
Vit.A
Thia-min
Ribo-flavin
Nia-cin
Vit.C
(kcal)
(g)
(g)
(g)
(mg)
(mg)
(mg)
(ug)
(mg)
(mg)
(mg)
(mg)
Chicken Egg
(1 pc = 48 g)
77
5.9
5.3
1.3
36
86
1.3
145
0.03
0.19
2.3
0
Duck Egg
(1 pc = 54 g)
96
6.3
6.8
2.2
38
94
1.5
267
0.15
0.30
1.2
Tr
Quail Egg
(1 pc = 8 g)
12
0.9
0.8
0.2
6
18
0.2
26
0.01
0.03
0.01
0
Quail Egg
(6 pcs = 48 g)
73
5.7
5.1
1.3
38
107
1.0
158
0.07
0.16
0.05
0

Table 2. % RDA Contribution of Different Types of Eggs for a Reference Man, 20-39 Years Old

TYPE
OF EGG
Energy
Protein
Ca
Fe
Vit.A
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
(kcal)
(g)
(mg)
(mg)
(ug)
(mg)
(mg)
(mg)
Chicken Egg
(1 pc = 48 g)
2.9
9.8
7.2
10.8
27.6
2.3
14.6
9.2
Duck Egg
(1 pc = 54 g)
3.7
10.5
7.6
12.5
50.9
11.5
23.1
4.8
Quail Egg
(1 pc = 8 g)
0.5
1.5
1.2
1.7
4.9
0.8
2.3
0.6
*Quail Egg
(6 pcs = 48 g)
2.8
9.5
7.6
8.3
30.1
5.4
12.3
0.2
*Reference Man, 20-39 Years Old

Eggs play important role in the diet. Recent findings show that saturated fat is the major culprit behind heart disease, and NOT cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol has only a small effect on blood cholesterol. Consumption of one egg per day has no detectable effect on heart disease in healthy people. Thus, the possibilities…. (a) components present in egg such as antioxidants, folic acid, B-vitamins and unsaturated fats, counterbalance the adverse effect of the egg's cholesterol content. (b) free-living people who are non-egg eaters can choose other foods that raise their cholesterol levels even more, (c) the effect of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol is too small to produce an effect on heart disease risk that can be detected.

Is eating egg a day a healthy daily habit? A medium chicken egg (48 g Edible Portion or EP) contains 144.5 mg cholesterol which is equal to 48.16% RDA.

Table 3. The Cholesterol Content of Common Filipino Foods

FOOD ITEMS
Cholesterol(mg)
per 100g EP
FOOD ITEMS
Cholesterol(mg)
per 100g EP
A. FISH AND SHELLFISH

B. MEAT AND POULTRY

Hipon, tagunton Hipon, suahe
Alumahan
Galunggong
Alimasag, laman
Tulingan
Pusit
Bisugo
Tamban
Sapsap
Tilapya
Dilis, buo
Tambakol
Matangbaka
Hipon, puti
127
80
79
74
73
66
56
47
41

21
19
-
-
-
Baka, utak
Baboy, utak
Baboy, atay
Manok, puso
Manok, balun-balunan
Baboy, bitukang maliit
Baboy, bitukang malaki
Baka, bitukang malaki
Baboy, liempo sa tiyan
Manok, pitso (laman)
Baka, laman
Baboy, pigi
Carabao meat, lean
Baboy, paypay, laman
Baboy, liempo sa hulihan
Baboy, tadyang
Baboy, likod
Baboy, dugo
Chicken, dressed, whole Manok, hita
Manok, pakpak
1,672
1,644
190
136
130
127
119
78
73
69
65
63
46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
C. PROCESSED MEAT

D. MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
 

Itlog, pula
Itlog, pato, balut, luto
Itlog, pato, inasnan
Itlog, pato, buo
Baboy, longganisa
Karne, hotdog
Karne Norte
Pork Tocino
Karne, loaf
Itlog, puti

732
515
438
418
174
33**
-
-
-
Tr

Gatas, pulbos, filled
Gatas, evap, filled
Gatas, pulbos
Gatas, kondensada, filled
Keso, filled
Keso, spread

-
-


19**
31
-
* 1990 Philippine Food Composition Tables
** 1998 Thai Food Composition Tables

Here is a sample one-day menu including the nutrient evaluation for 20-39 year old, healthy man. This one-day menu contains 129.2 mg cholesterol.

SAMPLE ONE-DAY MENU
Here are some tips on how to handle egg:

Purchasing: Do not buy dirty, cracked or outdated eggs.

Storage:

u Store at 45 o F or below.
u Store in closed container.
u Store away from strong odors.
u Refrigerate leftover egg dishes in shallow containers.
u Do not allow drippings to contaminate eggs.

Preparation/Cooking:

u Keep refrigerated before and after cooking.
u Keep everything clean.
u Use only clean, uncracked eggs.
u Cook thoroughly.
u Wash container used for egg thoroughly.
u Use egg separator

SAMPLE ONE-DAY MENU (Nutrient Evaluation)

NUTRIENT CONTENT
RDA (Reference Man*)
%RDA Adequacy
Energy (Kcal)
2571
2570
100.0%
Protein (g)
68.6
60
114.3%
Calcium (g)
545.6
500
109.1%
Iron (g)
11.2
12
93.3%
Vitamin A (ug RE)
536.1
525
102.1%
Thiamin (mg)
1.15
1.3
88.5%
Riboflavin (mg)
1.1
1.3
84.6%
Niacin (mg)
30.89
25
123.6%
Ascorbic Acid (mg)
73.3
75
97.8%

Among the seven regional recipes evlauated by the FNRI-DOST, Binagis from Region III had the highest cholesterol content per serving, 128 mg.

RECIPE/REGION
CHOLESTEROL (mg) per Recipe
SERVING SIZE
CHOLESTEROL (mg) per Serving
Kilawen (Region I)
418
1/2 cup
70.0
Baguisen (Region I)
421
1/3 cup
70.2
Binagis (Region III)
766
1/2 cup
128
Batsoy (Region IV)
389
2/3 cup
65
Trepilla Paksiw (Region V)
443
1/4 cup
74
Binagol (Region VIII)
539
1 piece
90
Sampayna (Region X)
755
3/4 cup
126

Service/Transport:

- Serve promptly after cooking.
- Keep cold foods cold, hot foods hot.
- Use ice or cold packs when transporting.
- Avoid eating raw eggs or foods that contain raw eggs.

Eggs can be contaminated, so here are some tips to kill or eliminate pathogens:

HEATING TIME TO ELIMINATE PATHOGENS

METHODS OF COOKING EGGS

Egg cooked in the shell
 Eggs at room temperature, water at boil, eggs put in and been simmered:
- 3 to 5 minutes soft egg
- 6 to 8 minutes medium-cooked egg
- 10 to 15 minutes hard-cooked egg

 Eggs from cold water, water boiling and reduced to a simmer:

- 1 to 2 minutes soft egg
- 3 to 5 minutes medium-cooked egg
- 10 minutes hard-cooked egg

 Do not overcook eggs.
 Cool quickly in cold water.
 Peel right away under cold running water.

Egg cooked out of the shell

 Fried Eggs

- frying temperature: 137 o C (278 o F)
- desirable qualities: glossy, moist and tender
- common pitfalls:

® eggs brown and crisp
® eggs white blistered
® eggs odd-shaped
® eggs sticking

 Shirred Eggs

- eggs cooked and served in the same dish, usually a shallow flat-bottomed earthenware dish
- should have the same qualities as egg sunny side-up

 Scrambled Eggs

- a good scrambled egg must not be tough nor burned but completely coagulated

 Poached Eggs

- a good-cooked poached egg has a compact, glossy, tender white, and unbroken, thickened yolk

- critical factors:

® quality of the egg
® temperature
® amount of liquid
® the way the egg is put in the pan

 Omelets

- a perfect omelet is fluffy, moist and tender, soft in the center, yellow in color with no brown at all or just a hint of it, oval in shape, and all in one continuous piece

 

Copyright © 2008 FNRI-DOST. All Rights Reserved.
  Updated  July 2014
 
DOST Compound, Bicutan, Taguig City
Tel. Nos. (02) 837-2934/837-3164
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox browser