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STATISTICS
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RESEARCH IN FOCUS
 
Development of Recipe Book Utilizing Selected Philippine Indigenous Vegetables
 
Background: A downward trend on vegetable consumption among Filipinos was noted from 1978-2008 based on the results of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST). Low intake of vegetables may possibly contribute to low levels of vitamins and minerals resulting to micronutrient malnutrition especially among vulnerable groups. Apart from the commonly consumed vegetables are vegetables native to or originating from a particular region known as Indigenous Vegetables (IVs). These vegetables grow abundantly in rural areas and not everybody is aware of their value as food. Objective: To develop a recipe book on indigenous vegetables that is easy to prepare and can be used by mothers, health workers and menu planners that will help improve health and nutritional well-being of Filipinos. Methods: The following activities were done: review of literature to determine indigenous vegetables to include and search for recipes where IVs may be incorporated; conduct of one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) among 10 FNRI employees to elicit perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes about IVs and manner of preparing them; standardization of recipes and evaluation of sensory attributes using the 9-point hedonic rating scale to determine acceptability among DOST in-house panelists; determination of mean and frequency distribution scores of sensory evaluation results; estimation of energy and nutrient content per serving portion using FCT + Menu Eval Software (v2002); finalization and photo-documentation of recipes. Preparation of prototype recipe book was carried out. Results: A total of 30 acceptable recipes were featured. Overall liking for recipes were like very much (50%), like moderately (24%), and like extremely (21%). Vegetables highlighted were alugbati, alukon, katuray, kulitis, kadyos, kalabasa, labanos, labong, malunggay, mustasa, pako, patola, pipino, saluyot, sayote, sigarilyas, sitaw, talinum, talong and upo. The recipes were categorized into soup, salad, side dish, viand, and dessert. The recipe book also featured messages from DOST secretary and FNRI Director, short write-up on IVs and their nutrient composition, and a glossary of cooking terms. The output is a 50-page recipe book with standee in full color. Conclusion and Recommendation: Indigenous vegetables when introduced and prepared into different dishes are found acceptable to panelists. The recipe book may serve as a useful tool to promote consumption of indigenous vegetables through preparation of recipes for the household and will provide variety to the usual diet which is seldom eaten by younger age groups. The dissemination and promotion of the book may help increase awareness on the importance and value of underutilized vegetables in different regions. It is recommended to develop a system for dissemination of recipe book to reach wider users and make it available and downloadable from FNRI website.>>>>>Abstracts and Posters
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Development of Potential Functional Food Products Using Locally Grown Crops  with Low Glycemix Index

The double burden of malnutrition refers to the dual burden of under and overnutrition occurring simultaneously within a population. In the Philippines, there is persistent undernutrition problem among infants and young children, as well as the emerging over nutrition situation or obesity seen in adolescents and adults. Among the countries in the world, the Philippines is among those with the highest incidence of non-communicable diet-related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that a diet with low glycemic index products may improve diabetes control, reduce cardiovascular risk factors and reduce body weight. The general objective is to develop potential functional food products utilizing locally grown crops with low glycemic index. The specific objectives are (1) to formulate three potential functional food products (2) to determine consumer acceptability of the three food products (3) to determine the chemical, physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological properties of the food products; and (4) to estimate the shelf-life of the three food products developed. Locally grown crops with low glycemic index (munggo beans, sweet potato and brown rice) were utilized to develop the potential functional food products. Trial formulations were conducted until products were acceptable. The most acceptable formulation was optimized using simple lattice mixture experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum formulation of the products were standardized and subjected to sensory evaluations using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and 9-point hedonic scale. Storage studies of the products were conducted. The munggo frozen yogurt was packed in 1.5 oz polystyrene ice cream cups and stored at frozen condition. The instant mashed sweet potato and brown rice puto premix were packed in laminated foil and stored at room temperature. Results of sensory, chemical and physico-chemical analyses were analyzed using Friedman ANOVA and Wilcoxon match pairs test. Three products namely munggo frozen yogurt (MFY), instant mashed sweet potato (IMSP) and brown rice puto premix (BRPP) were developed. In all optimization runs, a low glycemic index crop (munggo beans, sweet potato and brown rice) was constantly one of the independent variables included in the mixture design. The other two ingredients were selected based on their influence on the quality parameter analyzed. Dependent variables included QDA parameters, theoretical cost per serving and theoretical glycemic load per serving. The MFY was rated “like slightly” to “like moderately” and the IMSP and BRPP were rated “like moderately” to “like very much”. Sensory evaluation scores averaged 7.0 showing consumer acceptability. The moisture content (MC) of MFY, IMSP and BRPP ranged from 69.69-71.91%, 3.34-4.71% and 4.43-4.71%, respectively. The water activity (Aw) of MFY, IMSP and BRPP ranged from 0.95-0.98, 0.33-0.39 and 0.35-0.39, respectively. Based on the RENI of males age 19-64, a single serving of 40g of MFY will contribute 1.70-1.95% energy, 2.51% protein and 4.85% calcium. A single serving of 16g of IMSP will contribute 2.34-2.68% energy, 1.29% protein, 1. 51% vitamin A, 2.47% calcium and 2.40% iron. A single serving of 16g of BRPP will contribute 2.58-2.96% energy and 1.34% protein. All products were microbiologicaly safe based on the FDA Philippines standard limits in food microbiology. The shelf-life of the three products was six (6) months. Three potential functional food products optimized using RSM and standardized were developed. The products were subjected to shelf-life studies. Sensory evaluat      ion scores averaged 7.0 showing consumer acceptability. The shelf-life of the three products was six (6) months. IMSP was high in dietary fiber and low in fat. MFY was low in fat. Clinical studies should also be done to substantiate the health claim associated with the intake of food products with high dietary fiber. Utilization of the three products is recommended to weight-watchers and diabetics. Pilot scale production should be conducted to determine commercial and technical viability of the three products>>>>>Abstracts and Posters

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 Root Crops Can Modify Cholesterol Profile
 

Background: Root crops such as sweet potato (kamote) and cassava are eaten as staples by many people in the Philippines particularly in Batanes, Cebu, Lanao, Zamboanga and Sulu. These root crops are good sources of dietary fiber. Previous studies showed that dietary fiber from root crops have a cholesterol lowering effect in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Objective: To determine the efficacy of root crops in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Materials and Methods: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety; maturity 100-120 days), and cassava (Manihot esculenta, golden yellow variety; maturity 100-120 days) were used as test foods while sliced white bread was used as the control food in the study. A total of 59 apparently healthy adults were grouped into three: Group I- Control (18; 16 females and 2 males); Group II- Sweet potato (20; 17 females and 3 males); and Group III- Cassava (21; 18 females and 3 males). The study participants were required to fast overnight (10-12 hours of fasting) at baseline and endline. Ten milliliter blood samples were taken into plain glass tubes for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride measurements in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Hemoglobin A1C was sent to Hi-Precision Diagnostic Center for analysis. Anthropometric (height and weight) and body composition (Bio- impedance) measurements were also determined. Results: Kamote has significantly higher resistant starch than cassava (P<0.05). No significant results between baseline and after consumption of the different test foods were observed with regards to BMI, percent fat, glucose, HbA1C, and total cholesterol. The control group given slice bread significantly increased their serum triglycerides but not the group given kamote and cassava (P<0.05). In addition, there was a significant decrease in LDL-C in the group given cassava but not with slice bread (P<0.05). There was also a decreasing trend observed with kamote but not significant. Significant increase in HDL-C was observed in groups given kamote and cassava (P<0.05). Conclusion: Kamote and cassava did not lower serum total cholesterol in the duration of the study, however, these staples modified the serum cholesterol composition, increase HDL-C and decrease LDL-C. The continuous intake of root crops such as kamote and cassava may not only modify serum cholesterol composition but may lower total cholesterol levels in longer period of time. >>>>>Abstracts and Posters


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Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children 6 Months to 5 Years Old

Anemia has been a persistent and significant public health problem among children below 5 years of age. Anemia among children negatively affects their growth, cognitive development and economic productivity later in life. Data from the 7th National Nutrition Survey conducted in 2008 by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) was used to determine the association of socio-economic, feeding practices and other factors with anemia prevalence of children. The study also determined the association of anemia with the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting. A total of 2,406 children 6 months to 5 years old from the Biochemical Survey component of the 7th NNS were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the demographic profile of the children. Bi-variate cross tabulations between anemia status and the variables were generated to compare the prevalence of anemia for each of the categorical variables. Correlations between the anemia status and each one of the variables were determined using Chi-square test of independence. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. Results showed higher prevalence of anemia among children 6-23 months compared with children 24-60 months (45.8% versus 16.1%). Higher anemia prevalence in children 6-23 months was associated with households with heads below 50 years old, education below college level and occupational groups of agricultural and unskilled workers/common laborers, households without electrical services, without water-sealed toilets, and are food insecure. Among children 24-60 months, higher anemia prevalence was associated with households that live in makeshift houses. Participation to the deworming program showed a positive association with lower anemia prevalence among the 6-23 months. Underweight and stunted children and those who have not taken any vitamin or mineral supplements, and have had recent episodes of infection are more likely to become anemic. Analysis of feeding practices of infants 6 to 23 months revealed higher prevalence of anemia among infants exclusively breastfed for more than six (6) months. Based on the results, promotion of proper child feeding practices in terms of duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods as well as increased availability and access of iron supplements, deworming and poverty-reduction and food security initiatives are recommended to reduce anemia among children. >>>>>Abstracts and Poster

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